Lessons on the State(Executive)

The structure of speaking 17 sentences

1. Text ( title of the text) focuses on ( list all the headings of the text).

2. Part one highlights ( title of the part). It explains ( statement from Task 2).

3. Part two highlights ( title of the part). It (does not) explain(s) ( statement(f) from Task 2).

4. Part three highlights ( title of the part). It explains ( statement from Task 2).

5. Part four highlights ( title of the part). It explains ( statement from Task 2).

Executive power

1. In the study of political science the executive branch of government has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the democratic idea of the separation of powers .

2. In many countries the term "government" means only the executive branch. This branch occurs both in despotic and democratic forms of government. However, in authoritarian systems (such as a dictatorship or absolute monarchy, where the different powers of government are assumed by one person), the executive branch ceases to exist since there is no other branch with which to share separate but equal governmental powers.

3. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch. The executive officer is not supposed to make laws (the role of the legislature), or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). The role of the executive is to enforce the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judicial system.

4. There are two roles which the top leadership of the executive branch fulfills: Head of State and Head of Government. The organizational structure of the executive branch determines the relationship between the head of state and government respectively.

5. In a presidential system the executive is at once the Head of State and the Head of Government. Countries that model their government after the United States of America have a Head of State compared to other systems. The President of the United States is best described as the head of state for his or her role as the government's chief ambassador. However there is no constitutional foundation for any head of government in the United States since the separation of powers divides governmental authority amongst three branches with checks and balances over one another. The President of the United States can have significant power over public opinion through personal abilities of persuasion.

6. In a parliamentary system the head of state is often a figurehead without much legal power other than persuasion over public opinion. Several methods exist for the selection of heads of state in parliamentary systems, including the hereditary succession of monarchs, election by parliament, or in some cases direct election by the people. The head of government, however, typically has real authority and usually is elected by parliament. In this system the head of government, commonly referred to as prime minister, can receive a vote of no confidence removing him or her from office and placing a new "government" in office with all new cabinet members and prime minister. Parliamentary democracies do not have distinct separation of powers. The executive, which often consists of a prime minister and cabinet ("government"), is drawn from the legislature (parliament). This is the principle of responsible government. However, although the legislative and executive branches are connected, in parliamentary systems there is usually an independent judiciary.

7. In a semi-presidential system the head of state is typically referred to as president, and the head of government is typically referred to as prime minister. The powers of each vary from country to country, but in each instance the nations which employ the semi-presidential system have combined attributes of the presidential and parliamentary systems. In France for example the President is elected directly by the people, and appoints the Prime Minister.

8. There are no democratic systems with an absolute separation of powers or an absolute lack of separation of powers. Nonetheless, some systems are clearly founded on the principle of separation of powers, while others are clearly based on a fusion of powers.